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Woodworking machinery safety technology and the safe use of woodworking machinery

[Abstract]:
Machinery for the price of wood collectively referred to as woodworking machinery, is a means of processing wood, wood and various machinery by means of sawing, planing, car, milling
Woodworking Machinery Safety Technology:

Machinery for the price of wood collectively referred to as woodworking machinery, is a means of processing wood, wood and various machinery by means of sawing, planing, car, milling, drilling and other processing methods. The principle of woodworking machining is basically similar to that of metal cutting, but due to the natural growth characteristics of wood and the resulting high speed of woodworking machinery movement, the occupational injury accidents on woodworking machinery are much higher than those of metal cutting machines, Planer, circular sawing machine and band saw machine is a higher incidence of several types of woodworking machinery.
Woodworking machinery: band sawing machine, light band sawing machine, vertical sawing sawing machine, cross-sectional sawing machine, planer, planing machine, milling machine, wood grinder and so on.
First, the risk of harmful woodworking machinery
Due to the high spindle speed, multi-blade and multi-blade, manual feeding and low level of automation, coupled with the noise, vibration, dust and poor working environment in the mechanical cutting process, the workers are labor-intensive, fatigue-prone and operate Personnel are not familiar with woodworking machinery performance and safe operation of technology or do not follow the safe operation of the rules of machinery, there is no safety guards or safety guards and other causes failure, resulting in multiple accidents woodworking injuries.
1 mechanical damage
Mechanical damage includes cutting damage to the tool, impact damage from wood, and strike damage from flying objects, all of which are common types of injuries in woodworking. Such as the use of woodworking machinery and more manual feeding, when pressed by hand into the wood, often encounter knots, bending or other defects, leaving the hand contact with the blade, causing injury or even cut off the fingers; Saw timber, cut saw After the wood to the center of gravity in the direction of stability; wood moisture content, wood, scab and other defects caused by the folder saw; in the horizontal component of the knife under the action of bounced to the side of the wood; Elastic recovery during processing, etc .; tool itself has defects (such as cracks, strength is not enough); tool installation is not correct, such as blade too tight or planer blade too high; re-processing of nails and other debris of waste wood.
2 fire and explosion
Fire danger exists in all aspects of the whole process of wood processing, woodworking places is the focus of fire prevention. Wood dust suspended in space will explode under certain conditions.
3 wood biological, chemical hazards
Biological effects of wood can be divided into toxic, allergic, biological activity, can cause many different symptoms and processes of onset, such as skin symptoms, vision disorders, respiratory mucosal irritation and disease, allergic symptoms, and a variety of mixed symptoms. Chemical hazards are due to the use of chemicals in wood preservatives and adhesives, many of which can cause poisoning, dermatitis or respiratory mucosa and even cancer.
4. Wood dust hazards
Wood processing produces a lot of dust, small particles of wood dust deposited in the nose or lungs, can lead to decreased nasal mucosal function, and even lead to wooden pneumoconiosis (commonly known as pneumoconiosis).
5. Noise and vibration hazards
Woodworking machinery is a high-noise and high-vibration machinery, processing noise, vibration, the working environment deteriorated, affecting the physical and mental health of workers.
Second, woodworking machinery safety technical measures
In many wood processing risk factors, the risk of mechanical injury, the high probability of occurrence, the fire and explosion accidents are even more serious consequences. Some risk factors cause long-term harm to human health. These issues should be considered in the integrated management of the wood processing industry.
In the design, should make woodworking machinery has perfect safety device. Including safety guards, safety controls and safety alarm signaling devices. The safety technical requirements:
(1) In accordance with the "must have a wheel cover, a shaft must have a cover and a saw blade, a saw blade sets, planing (shear) cut a block," the safety requirements, and safety of feeding safety requirements for a variety of carpentry Mechanical configuration of the corresponding safety guards, bare hands operators must have safety precautions.
(2) Machinery and equipment producing noise, wood dust or volatile harmful gases shall be equipped with sound-absorbing, vacuuming or ventilating devices connected with their mechanical operation so as to eliminate or reduce occupational hazards and safeguard the safety and health of workers.
(3) woodworking machinery knife shaft and electrical safety control devices should be in handling or replacement of tools and maintenance, the power can be cut off and maintain the position to prevent accidental contact with the power switch or a sudden power supply to start the machine and cause personal injury ACCIDENT.
(4) Aiming at the danger of lumber rebound in woodworking operation, safety feeder or anti-rebound safety shield should be adopted. To protect the personal safety.
(5) In the installation of normal start-up and shutdown controls at the same time, should also be specially set in case of emergency emergency shutdown safety control device. According to this requirement, a variety of woodworking machinery should be developed with its supporting safety device technical standards. Domestic stereotypes of woodworking machinery, supplied at the same time, must be equipped with complete safety devices, and maintenance supplies required for the maintenance of safety parts in order to be updated after the failure of safety guards. For early imported or homemade, non-stereotypes, the lack of safety devices woodworking machinery, the use of units should be organized to develop and configure the appropriate safety devices, especially for operators who are at risk of woodworking machinery. The lack of safety devices or their failure of woodworking machinery, should be prohibited.
1. band saw safety device
All parts of the band saw should be closed with a protective cover except for the work section between the bottom of the guide roller and the table. The saw wheel should be completely closed. The outer surface of the saw wheel cover should be integral. Saw card and saw the protective cover between the wheel cover should cover the front and both sides of the saw blade and can automatically adjust with the saw card lift. Saw card should be gently attached to the saw blade, rather than tightly stuck saw blade, hand saw blade slip should be no phenomenon.
The band saw machine mainly adopts the hydraulic adjustable closed protective cover to block the high-speed running saw blade so as to adapt the bare part with the size of the sawing lumber, which can not only effectively carry out sawing but also "blast" the saw blade or " , The control saw blade collapse, messy, to avoid harm to the operator; the same time to prevent workers in the operation of fingers accidentally touch the blade cause injury. The saw blade exposed cutting parts, in order to facilitate the operator to observe and control, should also be set up the corresponding mesh shield to prevent the processing of sawdust and other crash, causing personal injury accident.
Band saw machine shutdown, due to the role of inertial force will continue to rotate, at this time, the next saw, accidentally hit the saw blade will cause accidental injury. To enable it to shut down quickly, a brake disk brake controller should be installed. When the band saw is broken, you can also use the brake disc brake to stop it.
2 circular saw safety device
In order to prevent the risk of wood bounce, circular saw should be equipped with separate knife (loose knives) and removable protective cover. The role of separate knife is to make the continuous separation of wood, the sawn timber will not be close to the rotating blade, which will not produce wood bounce. The purpose of the movable cover is to cover the circular saw blade to prevent the hand from getting too close to the circular saw blade and to effectively prevent the wood from bouncing back.
Circular saw safety devices are usually made up of a shield, a guide, a separating knife, and an anti-wood bounce block. Elastic adjustable safety shields can be raised and lowered with the sawing timber size, which not only facilitates pushing into the saw, but also controls the sawdust splash and the wood to rebound. The sawing wood is expanded by the separating knife to prevent the wood from being caught by the saw Bounce, and help to improve sawing efficiency.
Circular saw excessive noise is also a serious occupational hazards, directly harm the health of the operator, should install the appropriate silencer.
3. Woodworking planer safety device
Planer on the operator's personal injury, one is easy to push wood easily hurt finger, planing noise generated by occupational hazards.
Planing injured hands for multiple accidents, has not been well resolved. The more advanced method is the use of optoelectronic technology to protect the operator, the current domestic application is not effective; the more applicable and effective method is to set the security guards in the planing danger zone and limit the spacing with the table to stop the fingers into the danger zone, The actual application is better. Reduced noise can be used to open a small aperture of the spacer, can reduce the noise 10-15 dB (A).
In short, most woodworking machines have varying degrees of danger or harm. Targeted additional safety equipment, is to protect the operator's physical and mental health and safety, promote and achieve safety in production of important technical measures.
In woodworking machinery accidents, the majority of accidents occur on the hand planer, so safety guards must be provided on the hand planer.
For safety, the hand platen shaft design and installation must meet the following requirements:
(1) Cylindrical arbor must be used and square arbor must not be used.
(2) the outer edge of the pressure blade should be combined with the outer circumference of the arbor, when the hand touches the arbor, it will only scratch the finger skin, will not be cut off.
(3) Planer blade out of the amount can not exceed the knife shaft diameter 1.1mm.
(4) Planer mouth opening should be consistent with the provisions.

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